Cancer is the condition in which DNA damage leads to abnormal and uncontrolled cell division with a damaged genetic material.
It has a major impact on society all over the world.
Dietary indiscretion and cigarette smoking are two great contributory factors in cancer progression.
There are several types of cancers, such as bladder cancer, breast cancer, cervical cancer, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer, leukemia, lung cancer, lymphoma, ovarian cancer, prostate cancer, skin cancer, stomach cancer, testicular cancer.
Healthy lifestyle management can prevent several types of cancer.
Avoidance of smoking and healthy dietary measures have cancer-preventive effects.
Diabetes is an impairment of insulin functionality.
The resultant of this leads to an increase in blood glucose level (hyperglycemia).
The estimated parameters for blood glucose level showed that ≤ 110 is normal; 110-126 is considered as borderline, and ≥126 indicates diabetes.
Diabetes is a chronic progressive condition that gradually affects different physiological systems of the body.
Depending on the etiology, there are two types of diabetes – Type 1 and Type 2.
Both type 2 diabetes and cancer have some common lifestyle risk factors.
But the exact relationship between these two disease conditions is not completely understood yet.
Hypothetical explanation stated that medicines used to control hyperglycemia might play a role in cancer risk reduction and enhancement.
In clinical findings, diabetes and cancer findings within the same individual are a more common incidence.
Diabetes triggers the risk factors responsible for developing various cancers.
A metabolic disorder associated with cancer can cause a reduction of testosterone levels that leads to prostate cancer.
Hyperinsulinemia and obesity are two other pathophysiological findings of diabetes that worsen the prostate cancer prognosis among male diabetic patients.
Higher C-peptide levels are an indirect indication of insulin resistance that negatively impacts the survival rate in patients with prostate cancer and colorectal cancer.
Epidemiological study findings also reported that diabetes might significantly increase mortality in cancer patients.
Breast cancer risk is also higher among diabetic female patients than normal individuals.
Different meta-analyses revealed that there is a strong association of type 2-diabetes with breast cancer, colon cancer, and pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, endometrial and bladder cancers.
A preexisting diabetic patient has a 30% more prevalence of cancer incidence and an almost 70% increase in the mortality rate.
The cancer survivors often develop type 2 diabetes and other metabolic syndromes at their later stages of life.
Excessive fat accumulation due to their sedentary lifestyle may contribute to the development of this condition.
Radiation therapy and androgen deprivation therapy for treating prostate cancer have a great role in producing obesity and insulin resistance.
Liver cancer and diabetes have some association as insulin released from pancreatic β-cells is transported through the portal vein and reaches the liver.
Therefore, both pancreas and liver exposure to insulin is higher than other organs.
The predominance of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, steatosis, and cirrhosis is higher in diabetic patients.
All these liver disorders increase the risk of liver cancer.
Abnormal glucose metabolism is a characteristic sign of diabetes that may consequently increase the risk of pancreatic cancer.