Blood cancers originated from their site of production i.e., bone marrow is also clinically termed as hematologic cancers. Blood cancers are the result of abnormal growth of blood cells, interruption of normal blood cell functioning including fighting against infectious diseases, and synthesis of new blood cells.
Blood cancers are primarily three different varieties including leukemia, lymphoma, and myeloma. Lymphoma is classified into two categories- Hodgkin lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Leukemia is a type of blood cancer that is generated from bone marrow and affects the blood. The primary pathophysiology involves in leukemia includes an abnormally increased number of white blood cells, and red blood cells and platelets production get interrupted due to leukemia interferes with bone marrow functioning.
Hodgkin lymphoma is a type of blood cancer generates in lymphocytes a specific type of cells presents in the lymphatic system. The characteristic feature of Hodgkin lymphoma is the presence of the Reed-Sternberg cell, an abnormal lymphocyte.
Non- Hodgkin lymphoma is also a type of blood cancer that generates in lymphocytes a specific type of cells presents in the lymphatic system. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that can fight against infectious disease.
Multiple Myeloma is a type of blood cancer that originates from blood plasma cells; a type of white blood cell made in the bone marrow.
The symptoms of blood cancer include persistent fatigue, repeated fever and chills, weakness, nausea, anorexia, abdominal discomfort, sudden weight loss, night sweats, headache, bone, and joint pain, frequent infection, breathing shortness, skin itching or rash, inflammation in lymph nodes present in the neck, underarm or groin.
Blood cancer treatment options
The treatment plan for blood cancer depends upon the type of cancer, patient’s age, the rate of cancer progression spreading of cancer to other parts. Following are different treatment options for blood cancer.
Stem cell transplantation: In this process, healthy stem cells are infused into the body for keeping on blood form. Bone marrow, circulating blood and umbilical cord blood are different sites from where stem cells can be collected for transplantation purposes.
Chemotherapy: Anticancer medications are used in chemotherapy to interfere with cancer growth for the cessation of cancer cell growth. Usually, a combination of medications is used as a blood cancer chemotherapeutic regimen to treat or improve the patient’s condition. Chemotherapy can be used as a prior treatment of stem cell transplantation.
Radiation therapy: The strong X-rays or other radioactive rays pass on in radiation therapy to destroy cancer cells, pain relief, or other symptomatic relief to lessen the patient’s discomfort. Radiation can be used as a prior treatment of stem cell transplantation.