Tumor progression, a primary triggering factor of cancer is influenced by genetic and epigenetic abnormality. A malignant tumor is usually aggressive in nature and progression of the malignancy clinically leads to cancer development. However, the rate of progression and time course are variable and dependable upon several biological and clinical factors. The clinical significance of malignancy can be described as neoplastic cells, which can invade locally and metastasize at distant organs and the remaining body. The cancer cell progress from primary tumor mass to a distant organ due to loss of cellular bonding and alteration of cellular matrix. This allows the cancer cell to invade the surrounding tissues and the process is known as an invasion. The gradual interaction between surrounding tissues and tumor cell promotes angiogenesis, through which blood circulation takes place and cancer progresses. This process is known as intravasation. The biochemical interaction which is mediated through carbohydrate locking reaction assist in interaction with endothelial cells, which is known as extravasation.
The interaction of endothelium and basement membrane initiates new tumor growth. Therefore, the whole cancer metastatic process depends upon invasion, intravasation, and extravasation.
Cancer Treatment options
Medical advancement provides multiple treatment options for cancer. But the application of treatment depends upon many factors, primarily the site of cancerous growth and nature of the tumor. Broadly the available treatment options are local and systemic. Surgery and radiation therapy are considered local treatments as these are applied to a specific area of the body to treat localized treatment. Whereas, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or targeted therapy are different types of drug treatments that affect the entire body and considered systemic treatments.
Surgery for cancer has been started many years ago and still very common to treat localized cancerous growth. Surgery is also used to diagnose the spreading details of cancer.
The drugs or medicines used for cancer treatment are medically termed as chemotherapy. However, chemotherapeutic agents have multi mechanisms of action but primarily use to kill the cancerous cells due to their cytotoxic effect.
High power X-rays or protons radiation beam used alone or along with other cancer treatment measures like chemotherapy, surgery, hormone, or targeted therapy.
Targeted therapy is attacking cancer cell/s by precisely identifying them. Targeted therapy are usually medications or other specific substances used alone or in combination with other standard treatment.
Immunotherapy is given to activate the patient’s immune system so that body can fight against the cancerous cell. The treatment may modulate immune functioning or boost the immune system to precise identification and invade cancer cells.
Stem Cell or Bone Marrow Transplant
In certain types of cancer bone marrow or stem cell transplantation helps cancer patients survive for a longer period and improve quality of life. Depending upon the requirement of stem cells the transplantation might be conducted from peripheral stem cell transplant or cord blood transplant.
Hormones are proteinous substances secreted from different glands of the body to regulate the different cellular functioning. Hormonal imbalance can trigger some cancerous growth. Hormone therapy is primarily used for treating breast cancer and prostate cancer. Apart from these, hormone therapy is used for treating some other cancers. The systemic effect of hormone therapy may affect the whole body as it flows through the body.