Medical science has discovered more than 120 different types of cancer. The type of cancer mainly depends upon the site of its development. Following are different types of cancers:
- Mixed Types
An epithelial origin-based malignant neoplasm can affect both internal or external body lining, as the epithelial tissue present all over the body. Skin as well as internal organ lining are made up of epithelial tissue. Almost 80 to 90% of cancer cells are epithelial tissues.
Two types of carcinoma are present – adenocarcinoma develops in glands and organs, whereas squamous cell carcinoma is originated from squamous epithelium. Adenocarcinoma generates on the mucus membrane and looks like the thickened plaque. Adenosine sarcoma is easily spread. Whereas, many areas of the body get affected by squamous cell carcinomas. Secretory organs like breast, lung, prostate, colon, bladder are different parts mainly affected by carcinomas.
Cancer that develops in connective and supportive tissues is called sarcoma. Bone, muscle, cartilage, fat, and tendons are different body parts where sarcoma can occur. Painful mass development in the bones is the most common type of sarcoma develops in young adult. Sarcoma tumors look like same the tissue where they originated from. Sarcoma is classified based on its site of origin:
- Sarcoma generates in bone is known as osteosarcoma or osteogenic sarcoma.
- Sarcoma generates in cartilage is known as chondrosarcoma.
- Sarcoma generates in smooth muscle is known as leiomyosarcoma.
- Sarcoma generates in skeletal muscle is known as rhabdomyosarcoma.
- Sarcoma generates in the membranous lining of body cavities is known as mesothelial sarcoma or mesothelioma
- Sarcoma generates in fibrous tissue is known as fibrosarcoma
- Sarcoma generates in blood vessels is known as angiosarcoma or hemangioendothelioma
- Sarcoma generates in adipose tissue is known as liposarcoma
- Sarcoma generates in neurogenic connective tissue found in the brain is known as glioma or astrocytoma.
- Sarcoma generates in primitive embryonic connective tissue is known as myxosarcoma
- Sarcoma generates in mixed connective tissue is known as mesenchymous or mixed mesodermal tumor.
Bone marrow containing plasma cells affected with cancer is known as myeloma. The plasma cell is made up of proteins present in blood tissue.
Cancer that originated in the bone marrow from where blood cells are produced is called leukemia or blood cancer or liquid cancer.
Lymphomas originated from lymphatic nodes or glands present in the lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is composed of many lymphatic vessels, nodes, and some important organs like the spleen, thymus, and tonsils. A lymphatic system containing organs take part in bodily fluids purification, and production of white blood cells or lymphocytes which have infection-fighting property. But lymphoma is a type of solid cancers. However, breast, stomach, and brain cancers can be a type of lymphoma, which is known as extranodal lymphomas. However, lymphomas are broadly classified as Hodgkin lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The main difference between these two types of lymphomas is the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells in Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The characteristic features of Reed-Sternberg cells are larger with multinucleated. The number of Reed-Sternberg cells increases with the advancement of lymphomas.
The presence of one or different categories of components is classified as mixed types. Some mixed types of cancers are adenosquamous carcinoma, carcinosarcoma, mixed mesodermal tumor, and teratocarcinoma.